Biomedical Application of Nanoparticles explores nanoparticles, their chemical and physicals properties, and how they interact in biological systems with proteins, immune system and targeted cells. Risk assessment of nanoparticles for human is described, including: cellular paradigms, transcriptomics and toxicogenomics. Finally, the applications of nanoparticles in medicine and antioxidant regenerative therapeutics are presented in several chapters with emphasis on how nanoparticles enhance transport of drugs across biological membrane barriers and therefore may enhance drug bioavailability.
Variety of nanoparticle their synthesis and physicochemical determination. Nanoparticle world: history and introduction to their diversity. Manufacturing nanoparticles: a chemist approach. Manufacturing nanoparticles: a pharmacist approach. Methods for physico-chemical composition determination. Metrology of nanoparticles. Interaction with biological systems. Nanoparticle interaction with proteins: corona formation. Nanoparticle interaction with immune system. Cell uptake and internalization. Response of living systems to nanoparticles. Tools and methods for living system response investigation. Determination of effect biomarkers in cell, e.g. of NCF1 gene. Oxidative stress pathways involved following nanoparticle uptake. Involvement of necrosis, apoptosis or autophagy pathways. Nanoparticle and cell differentiation. Safety assessment of nanoparticle human use. Rodent inhalation studies for nanoparticles. The problem of barrier crossing: skin, placenta and brain barrier. Cell and coculture paradigms in safety assessment. Screening for genotoxicity using toxicogenomics. Nanoparticle and mitochondrion interaction. Medical use of nanoparticles. Nanoparticles and drug delivery: past present and future. Nanoparticles as vehicle of antioxidants. Nanoparticles in imaging for cancer early diagnosis. Phototherapy using drug encapsulated agents in cancer. Nanoparticle therapeutic in degenerative diseases. Nanoparticle in cosmetics. Current use of nanoparticle in the 3 Pharmacopeia.